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Dermatologie
 

Die wichtigsten Sonnenschutztipps

  • Sonnenbrand vermeiden
  • Meidung von UV-Strahlung aus künstlichen Quellen (Solarien)
  • zwischen 11 und 15 Uhr im Schatten bleiben, speziell in den Sommermonaten
  • bei Sonnenexposition Hut mit breiter Krempe, UV-absorbierende Sonnenbrille und geeignete, lichtdichte Kleidung tragen
  • an unbedeckten Körperstellen Sonnenschutzmittel mit hohem Lichtschutzfaktor (mindestens LSF 15), der auch im UV-A-Bereich wirksam ist, verwenden
  • Auftragen von Lichtschutz-präparaten 30 Minuten vor der Sonnenexposition
  • Verwendung von wasserfesten Lichtschutzmitteln beim Baden
  • Aufenthalt an der Sonne zeitlich dem Hauttyp anpassen
  • Kleinkinder bis zu 1 Jahr nie der direkten Sonne aussetzen

Den folgenden Kleidungsstücken kann in etwa wie ein UV-B-Schutzfaktor wie folgt zugeordnet werden

Faktor 2:

Damenstrümpfe

Faktor 5:

Seide, Baumwolle trocken

Faktor 11:

Polyamid, Elastomer

Faktor 26:

Polyester mit Titanoxid mattiert

Faktor 45:

Wolle trocken

Faktor 50:

Mikrofasern aus Polyamid, Elastomer

Faktor >100:

Jeans, Leder, Filz

Sun Protection-Sonnenschutz für Ihre Haut und Ihre Augen:

Typen

Anwendung

Degrade, verlaufend getönte Gläser

nicht ratsam im Schnee,ideal für Shopping

Full view, gleichmässig getönte Gläser

wichtig wenn Licht vonunten reflektiert wird

 

 

Polarisierende Gläser

für Wassersport und Fischen

 

 

Phototrop,sich unter Einfluss des Sonnenlichts verfärbende Gläser

geeignet für allgemeinen Gebrauch, nicht geeignet für Extremsituationen

 

 

Verspiegelte Gläser

ideal für Bergsteigen und Skifahren

 

 

Seitenschutz

ideal für Bergsteigen und Skifahren

 

 

Farben

Eigenschaften

Braun

leichte Farbverfälschungen, aber angenehm warmer Farbton

Grau

neutrale Farbwiedergabe

Grün

leichte Farbverfälschungen, verstärkt das natürliche Grün

Gelb

kontrasterhöhend, geeignet für Schiesssport, Biken im Wald, starke Farbverfälschungen, nicht geeignet zum Autofahren

Blau, violett, rot etc.

reiner Modegag, als Augenschutz nicht geeignet

The Sun and Your Skin


Soaking up the sun's rays is one of life's greatest pleasures. Not only does a warm, sunny day perk up our spirits, it provides us with the ideal setting to pursue many activities, including outdoor sports, leisurely walks, gardening, picnicking, or relaxing.

The sunlight can also provide therapeutic and psychological benefits. For persons with asthma, arthritis, and certain skin diseases, the sun's rays can relieve some of the physical discomfort of these conditions. The sun worshipers who stretch out on the beach or at the swimming pool for hours seek bronzed bodies which they believe symbolize attractiveness, youth, fitness, and the "good life."

Unfortunately, spending too much time in the sun without adequate protection is harmful. Excessive exposure over the years will result in sagging, aging skin, increased frequency of skin cancer and occasionally death.

The sun's rays

Besides emitting light rays that we can see, the sun sends out ultraviolet rays that are invisible. The ultraviolet (UV) rays can cause suntans and sunburns. About 6% of the solar radiation that reaches the earth's surface is ultraviolet radiation (very short wavelengths), 48% is visible light and 46% infrared light.

The total amount of harmful UV radiation that reaches the skin at any given time is influenced by such factors as season, time of day, conditions of the earth's atmosphere, and proximity to the equator where the amount of UV light is the greatest. For example, sun worshipers soak up more ultraviolet rays per hour in Florida than they would in Maine because the South, which is closer to the equator, receives 1 1/2 times as much of the sun's rays as does the North.

Your chances of developing a sunburn are greatest between 10 AM and 3 PM when the sun's rays are strongest at all latitudes. The risk drops considerably before and after those times.

Most people discount the risk of getting a sunburn on a cloudy or overcast day when the sun is not shining brightly. However, on these foggy, cloudy, or slightly overcast days, a sunburn can be induced when sunlight is scattered by atmospheric conditions. Up to 80% of UV rays can "penetrate" through the clouds. However, by absorbing harmful rays, atmosphere pollutants such as dust, smoke, and dirt offer partial protection against the risk of sunburn.

Though clothing generally absorbs or reflects UV rays, white fabric like that used in shirts as well as wet clothes that cling to a person's skin can transmit a large amount of UV light.

Beach umbrellas do not provide full protection because UV rays can still bounce off sand, water, and porch decks to the person lounging underneath. Snow reflects up to 80% of the sun's rays. Knowing that shiny surfaces reflect the sun's rays, some people use sun reflectors to increase their exposure to the sun and thereby increase their tans. This is a dangerous practice because delicate areas, like the eyelids, ears, and under the chin, can be burned severely.

It is easier to burn more severely on a hot day because the heat increases the effects of ultraviolet radiation. And it is easier to burn at high altitudes and in the mountains because there is less atmosphere to block ultraviolet rays. Wind tends to increase the ill effects of the sun's rays.

Effects of sun

Acute sunburn reaction

If you are exposed to the sun too long, you may develop a mild redness within a few hours. This usually peaks within 24 hours. A severe reaction which is marked by extreme tenderness, pain, swelling, and blistering, may be accompanied by fever, chills, nausea, and delirium within 12 hours of the overexposure. Unfortunately, there is no quick cure--despite claims from some sun cream manufacturers--for the discomforts of an acute sunburn. Home remedies, like wet compresses, tub baths, and soothing lotions, usually provide partial relief. If you develop a severe burn, consult your dermatologist who may suggest special ointments or drugs to reduce swelling, pain, and prevent infection.

Tanning

A sunbather views a tan as a symbol of good health and looks. However, physicians consider tanning a response to injury because the sun kills some cells on contact and injures others. Tanning occurs when the UV rays penetrate through to the skin's inner layer to produce more melanin, which then moves toward the outer layers and becomes visible as a tan. Melanin production usually occurs 48 hours after the initial sun exposure, peaking about two weeks later.

Aging

People who work or bask in the sun for years without sunscreen protection usually develop a tough, leathery skin that may make them look 15-to-20 years older. Chronic exposure, starting in childhood, typically results in a change in the skin's texture. This leads to excessive wrinkles and variable degrees of skin thickening and thinning. After years of excessive exposure, the sun weakens the skin's elasticity, leaving the appearance of sagging cheeks and deeper than normal facial wrinkles. In addition to the other harmful effects on the skin, the sun can cause discoloration--red, yellow, gray, or brown blotches, formation of "liver spots," and gray scaly growths called actinic keratoses which may develop into cancer. It should be emphasized that these changes are not just due to recent exposure, but to cumulative effects throughout life. Attention should be paid to the protection of children who tend to have longer outdoor exposure and may not show the effects of sun damage until later in life.

Cancer

Skin cancer is a disease caused by excessive and long-term exposure to the sun, according to scientific studies. It rarely occurs in the occasional sunbather. More than 90% of all skin cancers occur on parts of the body exposed to the sun's radiation. The face, neck, ears, forearms, and hands are the most common locations. The three main types of skin cancer are basal cell, squamous cell, and melanoma.

Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs in persons who have light hair and fair complexions, who sunburn readily, and who do not tan. Appearing as a small, shiny, fleshy nodule on exposed parts of the body, basal cell carcinoma grows slowly. When diagnosed and treated promptly, it has a high cure rate.

Squamous cell carcinoma, which typically develops on the face, ears, lips, and mouth of fair-skinned persons, usually starts out as a red, scaly, plate-like patch or nodule. Though it can spread to other parts of the body, it also carries a high cure rate when detected and treated early.

Melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, usually shows up as a dark brown or black mole-like lesion with irregular edges. Sometimes, the growths may turn red, blue, and white. The most common sites are the upper back in men and women and the chest and lower legs of women.

Allergies

Some people develop allergic reactions to sun exposure. These reactions occur after only short periods of exposure. Bumps, hives, blisters, or red blotchy areas may occur repeatedly in the same place after each sun exposure. Researchers say these reactions are due to a person's previous sensitization to sunlight or to contact with certain cosmetics, perfumes, plants, topical medications, or sun preparations. Some drugs, including birth control pills, antibiotics, antibacterial ingredients in medicated soaps and creams, and tranquilizers can make some individuals more sensitive to the sun, causing a skin eruption. The allergic reaction is called a photosensitivity reaction. If this occurs see a dermatologist and avoid the offending product in the future.

Diseases

Some diseases become worse or begin upon exposure to the sun. These include herpes simplex (cold sores), chickenpox, a number of less common disorders, serious skin diseases, conditions that affect the body's metabolism, and genetic problems. In lupus erythematosus, overexposure to the sun may lead to a very serious attack and even death if unrecognized or inappropriately treated.

Who is affected?

Whether individuals burn or tan depends on a number of factors, including their skin type, the time of year, and the amount of sun exposure they have received recently. The skin's susceptibility to burning has been classified on a five-point scale as follows:

  • Type I (extremely sensitive), always burns, never tans
  • Type II (very sensitive), burns easily, tans minimally
  • Type III (sensitive), burns moderately, tans gradually to a light brown
  • Type IV (minimally sensitive), burns rarely, tans well to a dark brown
  • Type V (not sensitive), never burns.

Tanning

Tanning should be discouraged but some individuals will seek a tan despite warnings. The safest way to tan is to do it gradually and to use an appropriate sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or greater one half hour before sun exposure.

Gradual exposure permits optimal production of the browning pigment, melanin, to take effect. This protects somewhat against sunburn also. Gradual exposure also helps to thicken the outer layer of the skin. That, in turn, serves to protect the easily damaged skin layers from harmful sun rays.

Children should be protected from the sun's rays at an early age. Most damaging exposure to sunlight occurs before the age of 20.

How to prevent burning

The three best ways to prevent sunburns are to avoid the sun during the peak hours of solar radiation, to use sunscreen or sunblock preparations, and to wear loose clothing. Besides protecting from overexposure to sunlight, sunscreens help to prevent other sunrelated problems, like aging skin and precancerous growths. Classified as "drugs" by the United States Food and Drug Administration, sunscreens come in the form of ointments, creams, gels, and lotions. They are rated according to their effectiveness in blocking out sunburn rays, with higher numbers indicating more blocking action.

Individuals should select a sunscreen to provide protection according to their particular skin type, the time of year, their location, and the activities they plan to do. People with fair skin who burn easily and tan poorly (Types I & II) should use a product with an SPF value of 15 or greater. Individuals with less sensitivity can use sunscreens with lower numbers (i.e. 8-15) when exposed to the sun.

Though the newer sunscreens are more resistant to loss through perspiration and removal by water, they still should be reapplied frequently during peak sun hours or after swimming. To prevent streaks of tan, spread on an adequate amount of cream evenly on the areas that will be exposed. The sunscreens work by absorbing, reflecting, and scattering the sun's rays on the skin. Some sun preparations contain the following chemicals: paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA) and/or PABA esters and/or padimate-O. Some people are allergic to PABA-based sunscreens and use of the following type of ingredients may be substituted: benzophenones (oxybenzone and sulisobenzone), cinnamates (octylmethyl cinnamate and cinoxate), and salicylates (homomenthyl salicylate). Cosmetics and lip protectors which contain these chemicals are also on the market.

People who are out in the sun a lot, like lifeguards, and people with extreme sun sensitivity should apply an opaque sunscreen--such as zinc oxide, a thick white ointment--to completely cover vulnerable spots like noses and lips.

Individuals should select a sunscreen to provide protection according to their particular skin type, the time of year, their location, and the activities they plan to do, but always should use a product with an SPF value of 15 or greater.

The Darker Side of Tanning


Public health experts and medical professionals are continuing to warn people about the dangers of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, tanning beds, and sun lamps. Two types of ultraviolet radiation are Ultraviolet A (UVA) and Ultraviolet B (UVB). UVB has long been associated with sunburn, while UVA has been recognized as a deeper penetrating radiation.

Although it's been known for some time that too much UV radiation can be harmful, new information may now make these warnings even more important. Some scientists have suggested recently that there may be an association between UVA radiation and malignant melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer.

What are the dangers of tanning?

UV radiation from the sun, tanning beds, or from sun lamps may cause skin cancer. While skin cancer has been associated with severe sunburn, moderate tanning may also produce the same effect. UV radiation can also have a damaging effect on the immune system and premature aging of the skin, giving it a wrinkled, leathery appearance.

But isn't getting some sun good for your health?

People sometimes associate a suntan with good health and vitality. In fact, just a small amount of sunlight is needed for the body to manufacture vitamin D. It doesn't take much sunlight to make all the vitamin D you can use -- certainly far less than it takes to get a suntan!

Are people actually being harmed by sunlight?

Yes. The number of skin cancer cases has been rising over the years, and experts say that this is due to increasing exposure to UV radiation from the sun, tanning beds, and sun lamps. More than 1 million new skin cancer cases are likely to be diagnosed in the U.S. this year.

But aren't the types of skin cancer caused by the sun, tanning beds, and sun lamps easily curable?

Not necessarily. Malignant melanoma, now with a suspected link to UVA exposure, is often fatal. The number of cases of melanoma is rising in the U.S., with an estimated 38,300 cases and 7,300 deaths anticipated in 1996.

Why doesn't the skin of young people show these harmful effects?

Skin aging and cancer are delayed effects that don't usually show up for many years after the exposure. Unfortunately, since the damage is not immediately visible, young people are often unaware of the dangers of tanning. Physicians and scientists are especially concerned that cases of skin cancer will continue to increase as people who are now in their teens and twenties reach middle age.

But why is it that some people can tan for many years and still not show damage?

People who choose to tan are greatly increasing their chance of skin cancer. This is especially true if tanning occurs over a period of years, because the damage to the skin accumulates. Unlike skin cancer, premature aging of the skin will occur in everyone who is repeatedly exposed to the sun over a long time, although the damage may be less apparent and take longer to show up in people with darker skin.

Who is at greatest risk in the sun?

People with skin types I and II are at greatest risk.

WHICH SKIN TYPE ARE YOU?

Skin Type

Sunburn and Tanning History According to Skin Type

I

Always burns; never tans; sensitive ("Celtic")

II

Burns easily; tans minimally

III

Burns moderately; tans gradually to light brown (Average Caucasian)

IV

Burns minimally; always tans well to moderately brown (Olive Skin)

V

Rarely burns; tans profusely to dark (Brown Skin)

VI

Never burns; deeply pigmented; not sensitive (Black Skin)

Since most sun lamps and tanning beds emit UVA radiation, doesn't that make them safer than natural sunlight?

No. It's true that most sun lamps emit mainly UVA radiation, and that these so-called "tanning rays" are less likely to cause a sunburn than UVB radiation. But, contrary to the claims of some tanning parlors, that doesn't make them safe. UVA rays have a suspected link to malignant melanoma, and, like UVB rays, they also may be linked to immune system damage.

What's the government's position on using sun lamp products found in tanning parlors and in homes?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourage people to avoid use of tanning beds and sun lamps. You can get a fact sheet on the hazards of indoor tanning from FDA's Facts on Demand system by calling 1-800-899-0381; the information will be faxed to you on the same day (select 2 and then Division of User Programs and Systems Analysis or DUPSA). You can also go to the FDA Home Page on the World Wide Web at http://www.fda.gov. At this point, click on the Medical Devices and Radiological Health icon, click on Program Areas and choose Sun lamp Products.

Information on skin cancer is available on the American Academy of Dermatology home page on the World Wide Web at http://www.aad.org.

What do medical professionals say about tanning?

The American Medical Association (AMA) and the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) have warned people for many years about the dangers of tanning. In fact, AMA and AAD have urged action that would ban the sale and use of tanning equipment for non-medical purposes. Doctors and public health officials have recommended the following steps to minimize the sun's damage to the skin and eyes:

  • Plan your outdoor activities to avoid the sun's strongest rays. As a general rule, avoid the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
  • Wear protective covering such as broad-brimmed hats, long pants and long-sleeved shirts to reduce exposure.
  • Wear sunglasses that provide 98-100% UV ray protection.
  • Always wear a broad spectrum sunscreen (Sun Protection Factor-15 or more) that will block both UVA and UVB when outdoors and reapply it according to manufacturer's directions.

For more information on the levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching your area at noon, you can get the Ultraviolet Index (UVI) from your local newspaper, radio or TV. The UVI is a number from 0-10. The higher the number, the more intense the exposure. Call the EPA Hotline for more information on the UVI at 1-800-296-1996.

If you believe that some damage has already been done:

  • Seek medical attention if you receive skin or eye damage from the sun or if you experience an allergic reaction to the sun. Do this as soon as possible.
  • See your doctor if you develop an unusual mole, a scaly patch or a sore that doesn't heal.


Funded under Cooperative Agreement #U50/CCU511453-02
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
U.S. Public Health Service

 

Fotoprotektion und Vitamin-D-Mangel

Im Moment verunsichern Presse-mitteilungen die Bevölkerung, in welchen vor Vitamin-D-Mangel bei vermehrtem Sonnenschutz gewarnt wird und sogar Sonnenbaden zur Vitamin-D-Bildung propagiert wird. Dies untergräbt die Hautkrebspräventions-bemühungen der Krebsliga.
Vitamin D hat sehr vielfältige und wichtige physiologische Aufgaben zu erfüllen wie Entzündungshemmung, Knochenaufbau oder Infektionsbekämpfung. UV-B-Strahlen regen die Bildung von Vitamin-D im Körper an. Ein weiterer Teil des Vitamin-D-Bedarfs wird über die Nahrung aufgenommen. Für die Herstellung von Vitamin D im Körper ist nur eine sehr niedrige UV-B-Strahlungsdosis notwenig. Es reicht vollkommen aus, sich bei sonnigem Wetter täglich ein paar Minuten oder bei bedecktem Himmel 15 Minuten im Freien aufzuhalten. Besteht das Risiko eines Vitamin-D-Mangels wie zum Beispiel bei älteren Personen in Pflegeheimen, dann sollte der Arzt den Vitamin-D-Haushalt und den Knochenstoffwechsel überprüfen und mit dem Patienten Lichtschutz und Vitamin-D-Substitution besprechen.

 

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